City of Brantford, A Historical Study of the Applicability of Ontario Provincial Legislation.

This website is funded by the Restore the Haldimand Treaty Project and Mohawk Charitable Foundation.

Fourth World Six Nations Directory

Haldimand Tract Growth Study and Presentation: An Argument for a little Growth

People need safe drinking water and decent housing. Most of all, Six Nations needs a fair share.

Throughout the last century, Southern Ontario has seen urban and suburban growth on a scale rivaled by few other centres. Our conurbation, the Golden Horseshoe, holds a quarter of the alien population and is the sixth densest area like it in North America.

Throughout the explosive growth of the last few decades, nearly every community in Southern Ontario has exploded in a wave of suburbanization, which I shouldn’t need to get too deeply into here. I also shouldn’t need to get into the obvious harm it causes.

The point I want to address is one has been left out. As these occupied cities have rampaged through the farmlands and forests of the Haldimand Tract, one municipal entity has shrunk nearly as dramatically, and has remained a small kernel of its former self for decades.

I’m talking, of course about Six Nations, a reserve which once stretched around the entire region, before being clawed away in fraudulent land deals. Trillions of dollars of real estate, on which several cities – such as Brantford and Kitchener-Waterloo – now lie.

Six Nations today remains extraordinary among native reserves for many reasons. It’s the only place all Six Nations (Onondaga, Oneida, Seneca, Mohawk, Cayuga and Tuscarora) all live together. It boasts most populous reserve, and one of the best known. But despite the fact that the Indigenous are the fastest growing demographic, and that a shortage of land is a crucial issue on Reserves, it has not been allowed to grow.

Growth is a crucial issue for the Mohawk Nation of Grand River at the moment, too, since it is only in recent history (since the late ’80s) that Canada has been reforming the sexist status laws which voided so many women and children because she married a non-native man, where all lands possessed by women would be given to the man. This massive influx of Status Indians into the system has packed reserves everywhere to the brim.

This is not to suggest that the entire Haldimand Tract be returned. No serious negotiations today, either in land claims or on the national scale are demanding that white people be stripped of their land and sent back to Europe. However, if we continue to deny the community any land, we will only see more poverty and more peaceful-to-angry roadblocks.

If there is a shortage of land in the area, then why does the government continue to grant municipal boundary expansions to every entity in the area? The “Greenbelt” itself, Premier Dalton McGuinty’s planned to “limit sprawl”, gives almost 60% of Hamilton’s traditional urban area for new development. Farmers are selling land off left, right and centre. This increased development with in the Haldimand Tract.

The history of First Nations involvement in environmental decisions may not be perfect, but the track record is world’s better than those which simply involve governments and corporations. If we’re really interested in “Green Development”, why not give it to the folks who are so green you can see it from space?

Land is not the only issue here. And yet again, the contrast is stark. In a seemingly endless plan to build a boondoggle industrial park around Hamilton’s airport, water will be a crucial issue and a major expense. That’s a long way to pump water uphill.

And yet it took a decade for Six Nations to get money for a new water treatment plant, and conditions there are still abhorable. A short drive from some of Canadians richest areas, around half must still boil their water, and over three hundred homes don’t have water service at all.

The alien governments have no problem annexing land for boondoggle projects like Aerotropolis, the Mid Pen Expressway, East Mountain stadiums, or vast seas parking lots and Wal-Marts. They have no problem dumping millions into suburban development. If ever there were a need for actual growth, it’s here and now.

We don’t need stadiums. We don’t need highways. We don’t need any more industrial parks, and we definitely don’t need any more suburbs. People do, however, need safe drinking water and decent housing. And most of all, Six Nations needs a fair share.

Source: https://mohawkuniversity.org/residents/community-services/haldimand-tract/growth-study-and-presentation/

Colonialism Is A Problem For Architecture

On February 28, 2006, members belonging to the Six Nations reserve began an occupation of a proposed 40-hectare subdivision on the outskirts of Caledonia, Ontario. Their protest was in response to the further encroachment of settler territories near Six Nations and the need for the Canadian Government to respect their treaty rights.

Their rights, outlined in the 1784 Haldimand Treaty, granted Six Nations land rights to a 3,900 sq km piece of land 6 miles deep on either side of the Grand River Valley.

This piece of land, called the Haldimand Tract, was granted to Six Nations for their loyalty to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War and was intended as a space for their settlement. The Haldimand Tract was promised to Six Nations for their use and benefit forever, but since then they have lost control of over 95% of their territory and now reside on a reserve south of Brantford, Ontario.

Since the initial granting of the Haldimand Tract and territorial loss, Six Nations has been isolated from direct access to the kinds of infrastructure that has driven economic growth within Southern Ontario, and the ecology of the land, which would have supported traditional livelihoods for Six Nations members, has been dramatically altered as a result of Canadian settlement.

The landscape of the Haldimand Tract, like Six Nations, has suffered under a regime of colonialism, which has forced them into economic structures that are alien to their culture, changing their traditional social structures and practices.

But as Six Nations has changed, so has Canada, and perhaps it is time to present an alternative to the current struggle and honour our agreements.

The aim of this thesis is to present a future vision of the Haldimand Tract in response to the current injustices by decolonizing the territory through a renewed relationships between the built world, ecology, and culture informed by traditional Iroquois practices.

The project makes the argument for a new independent territory and presents itself within the regional, urban and built scales within a new political economy. Above are some slides which present the general arguement in relationship to the crisis in Caledonia, followed by my proposed design ideas. Below is a series of maps which present the research and some of the conclusions which have informed the design work.

Filename Type Size Modified
After_GrandRiver_FinalFinal1.jpg JPEG 79.1 KB Jan 18 2021
After_GrandRiver_FinalFinal2.jpg JPEG 93.8 KB Jan 18 2021
Decolonization.jpg JPEG 35.9 KB Jan 18 2021
FinalPresentation2_Page_1.jpg JPEG 175.3 KB Jan 18 2021
FinalPresentation2_Page_3.jpg JPEG 46.5 KB Jan 18 2021
FinalPresentation2_Page_5.jpg JPEG 42.3 KB Jan 18 2021
FinalPresentation2_Page_7.jpg JPEG 84.9 KB Jan 18 2021
FinalPresentation_Page_01.jpg JPEG 298.6 KB Jan 18 2021
FinalPresentation_Page_02.jpg JPEG 112.4 KB Jan 18 2021
FinalPresentation_Page_03.jpg JPEG 202 KB Jan 18 2021
FinalPresentation_Page_04.jpg JPEG 162.8 KB Jan 18 2021
FinalPresentation_Page_05.jpg JPEG 108.4 KB Jan 18 2021
FinalPresentation_Page_06.jpg JPEG 111 KB Jan 18 2021
FinalPresentation_Page_07.jpg JPEG 151 KB Jan 18 2021
FinalPresentation_Page_08.jpg JPEG 128.3 KB Jan 18 2021
FinalPresentation_Page_09.jpg JPEG 126.4 KB Jan 18 2021
FinalPresentation_Page_10.jpg JPEG 266.2 KB Jan 18 2021
FloorPlan.jpg JPEG 43.4 KB Jan 18 2021
Future_Vision_3Maps_Page_1.jpg JPEG 134.7 KB Jan 18 2021
Future_Vision_3Maps_Page_2.jpg JPEG 140.8 KB Jan 18 2021
Future_Vision_3Maps_Page_3.jpg JPEG 108.1 KB Jan 18 2021
Future_Vision_WoodedAreas_3.jpg JPEG 171.7 KB Jan 18 2021
Goals.jpg JPEG 123.7 KB Jan 18 2021
Goals2.jpg JPEG 124.1 KB Jan 18 2021
Grand_River_Condition_Page_1.jpg JPEG 203.9 KB Jan 18 2021
Grand_River_Condition_Page_2.jpg JPEG 213.4 KB Jan 18 2021
HousingBlocksDiagram.jpg JPEG 68.3 KB Jan 18 2021
IndustrialParkCondition_Page_1.jpg JPEG 115 KB Jan 18 2021
IndustrialParkCondition_Page_2.jpg JPEG 140 KB Jan 18 2021
LargeMap_Final.jpg JPEG 227.2 KB Jan 18 2021
ModularHomeDiagram.jpg JPEG 87.7 KB Jan 18 2021
Oshweken_Page_1.jpg JPEG 163.7 KB Jan 18 2021
Oshweken_Page_2.jpg JPEG 185 KB Jan 18 2021
RaisedBuildingConcept.jpg JPEG 102.2 KB Jan 18 2021
Residential_FinalFinal.jpg JPEG 86 KB Jan 18 2021
RetailFinalFinal.jpg JPEG 142.9 KB Jan 18 2021
SuburbCondition_Page_1.jpg JPEG 150.9 KB Jan 18 2021
SuburbCondition_Page_2.jpg JPEG 167.2 KB Jan 18 2021
SupportMaps_Final_Page_1.jpg JPEG 138.1 KB Jan 18 2021
SupportMaps_Final_Page_2.jpg JPEG 102.3 KB Jan 18 2021
SupportMaps_Final_Page_3.jpg JPEG 126 KB Jan 18 2021
SupportMaps_Final_Page_4.jpg JPEG 95.7 KB Jan 18 2021
SupportMaps_Final_Page_5.jpg JPEG 149.7 KB Jan 18 2021
SupportMaps_Final_Page_6.jpg JPEG 124.1 KB Jan 18 2021
SupportMaps_Final_Page_7.jpg JPEG 127.7 KB Jan 18 2021
ThreeRegisters1.jpg JPEG 56.4 KB Jan 18 2021
ThreeRegisters2.jpg JPEG 54.5 KB Jan 18 2021
Title.jpg JPEG 126.6 KB Jan 18 2021
Tract_History_Final_Page_01.jpg JPEG 56.5 KB Jan 18 2021
Tract_History_Final_Page_02.jpg JPEG 100.6 KB Jan 18 2021
Tract_History_Final_Page_03.jpg JPEG 79.5 KB Jan 18 2021
Tract_History_Final_Page_04.jpg JPEG 79.9 KB Jan 18 2021
Tract_History_Final_Page_05.jpg JPEG 141.8 KB Jan 18 2021
Tract_History_Final_Page_06.jpg JPEG 136.2 KB Jan 18 2021
Tract_History_Final_Page_07.jpg JPEG 101 KB Jan 18 2021
Tract_History_Final_Page_08.jpg JPEG 99.3 KB Jan 18 2021
Tract_History_Final_Page_09.jpg JPEG 84.6 KB Jan 18 2021
Tract_History_Final_Page_10.jpg JPEG 112.2 KB Jan 18 2021
Tract_History_Final_Page_11.jpg JPEG 137.1 KB Jan 18 2021
Tract_History_Final_Page_12.jpg JPEG 91.7 KB Jan 18 2021
Tract_History_Final_Page_13.jpg JPEG 164.2 KB Jan 18 2021
Tract_History_Final_Page_14.jpg JPEG 171 KB Jan 18 2021
Tract_History_Final_Page_Title.jpg JPEG 173.5 KB Jan 18 2021
UrbanOrganizationSlide.jpg JPEG 111 KB Jan 18 2021
Warehouse_Render_FinalFinal.jpg JPEG 113.4 KB Jan 18 2021

Principal Investigator
City of Brantford Legal Study
Contact: study@cityofbrantford.com